X-ray p.a. of a human thorax. The left side of the heart, respectively the left ventricle, are enlarged (hypertrophied). Enlargement of especially the left side, the cardiac apex is dislocated laterally and caudally, the outline of the heart is rounded. Possible causes: aortic valve defect, mitral valve insufficiency, cardiomyopathy, heart insufficiency, arteriosclerotic heart damage, chronic arterial hypertension.