Mechanism of arterial pressure regulationThe blood pressure is the pressure prevailing in a particular section of the cardiovascular system. In clinical practice this means usually the arterial blood pressure in large arteries.The blood pressure in the arteries may be changed only within relatively narrow limits, as both too high, and also too low blood pressure can damage organs or the blood vessel walls. At the same time the blood pressure has to be adjusted to the changing needs of the body. Prerequisite for the regulation of blood pressure is the control of the selfsame by baroreceptors. These are located in the wall of the aorta and other large arteries in the chest and neck. The most important ones are inside the carotid sinus. These receptors register the changes in blood pressure due to the consequent changes in the stretching of the vessel walls and convey this to the medulla oblongata. This now initiates a series of measures to either lower blood pressure or to increase. It is important that there are different measures that can have a short-term or longer term effects. In addition to the baroreceptors, there are also other factors like the osmolarity of the blood that affect the blood pressure.
Source: Hank van Helvete