In microscopic middle ear surgery, the tympanum is reconstructed by autologuous temporal muscle skin (tympanoplasty), the success rate for this procedure is above 90%. The defects of the auditory ossicles can be treated with surgical hearing reconstruction (with autologuous ossicles or with eg. titanium implants). A cholesteatoma has to be removed completely during this surgery to make live-threatening late complications impossible. This requires a complex surgical reconstruction of the middle ear and the auditory canal.