Schmorl's nodes are herniations of the nucleus pulposus into the body of the next vertebrae and are quite common. They can be symptomatic and asymptomatic. When symptoms occur they are typically expressed as lower back pain.
The aetiology is not understood completely although different theories exist (degenerative, age related, immunologic, direct axial trauma, genetic, favoured by other spinal disorders e.g. Scheuermann's disease). Treatment can be invasive and non invasive. Conservative treatment through NSAIDS is commonly administered. Other options are TNF alpha blockade (only in studies), ramus communicans nerve block (performed successfully in one study in cited paper), Surgical treatment options are segmental fusion surgery (PLIF = posterior lumbar interbody fusion, ALIF = anterior lumbar interbody fusion), vertebroplasty (one reported case in cited paper with pain relieve).
Source: REVIEW paper. Kwaku A. Kyere, Khoi D. Tan, Anthony C. Wang, S. U. Rahman, J. M. Valdivia-Valdivia, F. La Marca, P. Park: SChmorl's nodes. Eur Spine J (2012) 21:2115-2121. DOI 10.1007/s00586-012-2325-9