In an examination, the fundoscopy, light is shone into the eye from the outside and makes visible: The blood vessels of the fundus (temporal retinal artery and vein), the optic disc, the macula.
Here visible is the so called diabetic retinopathy. In patients with diabetes mellitus sugar is not processed in the correct way by the body. High blood sugar harms the blood vessels of the retina.
This impairs the funtioning of nerve fibres and retinal cells. These damages is then called diabetic retinopathy.
Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), also known as background retinopathy, is an early state of diabetic retinopathy. In this state blood or fluids seep from minuscule bloos vessels into the retina. This leads to retinal swelling or creation deposits, the so called hard exsudates.