A huge library of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) have been described, while the association between the function and modification type still has not been elaborately clarified. It is collectively thought that histone modifications may underlie a histone code, whereby combinational PTMs of histone demonstrate particular significances. Nevertheless, most functional data is associated with individual prominent histone PTMs that are biochemically amenable to detailed study. Abnormal histone modifications are involved in a variety of diseases like cancer, inflammation, neurological diseases and autoimmune disorders. The modification of histone in different physiological states, different subcellular localization, and different amino acid sites may lead to different functions. Currently, PTMs of histone is a hot but difficult research topic. It is an essential part to identify histone PTMs patterns for the understanding of its role as an epigenetic mark in gene activation and silencing, histone modification-associated pathological disease processes, as well as the development of histone modification-targeted drugs.