Replication of the genetic material
The genetic material, which contains the genetic information encoded as base sequences, is located in the nucleus of each cell. The DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) consists of two antiparallel alligned, but exactly matched (complementary) strands. The consists of each a sugar (deoxyribose), nitrogenous bases (thymine, adenine, guanine, cytosine) and phospate. Even smaller functional units can be differentiated: Nucleoside (sugar and base) and nucleotide (sugar, base and phosphate). (see: color-encoded components in the illustration) To be replicated, the DNA must first be despiralized. To each of the two original strands, a daughter strand is attached (semiconservative replication). These procedures take place during the S-phase of the interphase, which is the phase between the cell divisions.