Cross-sections of physiological and pathological lung bronchi
Cross-section of a lung bronchus, with its three general wall layers: Cartilaginous layer, muscular layer, and respiratory epithelium with microvilli. Left: Physiological condition. Middle: Inflamed bronchus with infected mucosa (reddening) and mucus production (green) in the course of a bronchitis. Right: Constricted bronchus with swollen mucosa (innermost layer), e.g. due to bronchial asthma with bronchospasm.