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With old age, the loss of the Y chromosome occurs in many leukocytes in men. This phenomenon is a risk factor for getting tumours – and as new evidence indicates for getting Alzheimer's ... [more]

DocCheck News
DocCheck News has published an article

Following the efforts of the WHO's special department in putting processed meats under the microscope, hot drinks are now the topic. Coffee and tea, contrary to earlier judgements, are suddenly ... [more]

Flora Vinbert has published the Flexikon article Anatomy of the liver
The anatomy of the liver describes the anatomic structure of the liver.
The anatomy of the liver can be described according to the morphological or functional aspects. The functional anatomy is primarily used in the clinic. The following ... [more]
Flora Vinbert has published the Flexikon article Axis
Axis refers to the second cervical vertebra (C2), which together with the atlas forms the atlantoaxial joint.

Anatomy
Basic structure
The vertebral body of the axis vertebra is relatively large and dense in comparison with the other cervical ... [more]
Flora Vinbert has published the Flexikon article Spleen
The spleen is the largest lymphatic organ in the human body.

Anatomy
The spleen is located intraperitoneally in the regio epigastrica sinistra in the upper left quadrant in the so-called splenic niche. The base of the spleen is located at the left ... [more]
Flora Vinbert has published the Flexikon article Thigh muscles
The thigh muscles are defined as the total of all skeletal muscles on the thigh which wrap around the thigh bone (femur).

Division
In the strict sense, the extensor group (ventral) and the flexor group (dorsal) cunt among the thigh muscles. The ... [more]
Flora Vinbert has published the Flexikon article Muscles of the upper arm
The muscles of the upper arm are the skeletal muscles that form the muscular mass of the upper arm and have a close anatomic relationship with the humerus. They have an effect on the elbow joint (Articulatio cubiti) and/or the shoulder joint ... [more]
Flora Vinbert has published the Flexikon article Triceps brachii muscle
The triceps brachii muscle is a three-headed muscle that belongs to the muscles of the upper arm. The three heads of the muscle are called "Caput longum", "Caput laterale" and "Caput mediale".

Devolution
Origin
Two heads of the triceps brachii ... [more]
Raphael Klinkhammer has edited the Flexikon article Transferase
These enzymes catalyze the transfer of a group (except hydrogen) from one substrate to another substrate.

Reaction
(substrate A)-R + (substrate B)-R --> (substrate A) + (substrate B)-RR=Rest (a group of atoms except hydrogen)

Examples
transaminase, ... [more]
Raphael Klinkhammer has edited the Flexikon article Hydrolase
These enzymes use H2O to catalyze the breaking of a covalent bond.

Examples
phosphatases, esterases, peptidases
Raphael Klinkhammer has edited the Flexikon article Lyase
These enzymes remove a group of a substrate and instead of the removed group they produce a double bond.

Examples
dehydratases, decarboxylases, aldolases, etc
Raphael Klinkhammer has edited the Flexikon article Isomerase
These enzymes transform a substrate in an isomere of the same substrate by relocating just a molecule of a substrate.

Examples
mutases, epimerases, etc.